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Moscow-2024: new stage in the evolution of Moscow Metro by TMH

31 March 2024
Reading time ~ 13 min
Head car of the Moscow-2024 metro train
Head car of the Moscow-2024 metro train. Source: TMH
Reading time ~ 13 min

Russia: In March, the first Moscow-2024 train was launched on Line 2 of the Moscow Metro. The Moscow Department of Transportation entrusted TMH with the development of this third-generation platform, and the train builder succeeded by consistently incorporating cutting-edge global trends and elevating passenger comfort to new heights, just as it has done since the very beginning of its work on the first generation.

While the basic activities aimed at ensuring technological independence were implemented during the production of the Moscow-2020, TMH continues demonstrating its commitment to using predominantly domestic components now by replacing subcomponents, i.e. constituent parts of nodes and units. The train builder strives to produce new models on a regular basis, so it is systematically developing urban rail transport competencies to better meet the needs of its customers and passengers and is relying on its unique engineering expertise.

Developing innovative platform, the Moscow

In 2013, the Moscow Department of Transportation established its requirements for a new platform that would incorporate innovative solutions to enhance transportation quality and passenger experience. In the subsequent year, TMH was contracted to deliver 768 cars and provide 30 years of maintenance. The manufacturer immediately began working on the new platform. The first mock-up was unveiled the following year, and a year later, the TMH factory in Mytishchi commenced production of the 81-765, 81-766, and 81-767 cars. In April 2017, they were introduced on Line 7.

The new cars differed significantly from the previous Oka platform, including a new generation asynchronous traction drive. These cars, some being non-motor, are walk-through, have slack-free couplers and air-proof gangways. The changes are not merely cosmetic. In the Moscow trains, sliding plug doors with increased width to 1,400 mm and new technologies have been implemented to improve passenger comfort and the efficiency of a driver’s work.

Interior and exterior of the first-gen Moscow metro trains Interior and exterior of the first-gen Moscow metro trains. Source: Evgeny Samarin/Moscow Mayor’s Office, TMH

The modifications and advancements in the new TMH trains sparked international interest. In 2018, a contract was signed to deliver two five-car trains to the Baku Metro. The Azerbaijani customer later purchased an additional six trainsets, followed by 12 more. The following year, deliveries began for the metro of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, with an order for five four-car trains.

Innovative solutions and exceptional design, the Moscow-2020

A few years later, Moscow Metro launched the next generation of trains, the Moscow-2020, named in honour of the year when the first trains were introduced. The Russian capital placed an order for 1,360 cars (170 trains) to replace the fleet on Lines 6 and 5. The brand-new Line 11 or the Big Circle Line – one of the world’s most ambitious transport projects, spanning over 70 km, with 31 stations and three electric depots — also received the Moscow-2020 vehicles.

Exterior and interior of the Moscow-2020 metro trains Exterior and interior of the Moscow-2020 metro trains. Source: Moscow Department of Transportation, TMH

As before, the metro train comprised three types of cars: head motor cars 81-775, middle motor cars 81-776 and middle trailing cars 81-777. The changes made in the new generation enhanced passenger comfort and safety, while the design surpassed that of its foreign counterparts.

The breakthrough redesign included improved zone lighting, an upgraded navigation system and more comfortable seats. The door openings have been increased by 15% to 1,600 mm, and the glazing covered almost 100% of the door area on the outside and 82% on the inside.

Speed and limits displayed on the windscreen Speed and limits displayed on the windscreen. Source: Moscow Department of Transportation

One of the new features in this version is an individual access card for drivers. With this card, drivers can easily enter the cab and activate the integrated control and traffic safety system. There are almost half as many buttons on the console, large-format touch screens, and data is projected onto the glass.

The Moscow-2020 design has been globally recognised, having won the highest honour in the Trains and Aircraft category at the 2021 Red Dot Award: Product Design. The jury unanimously gave the Moscow-2020 the highest rating.

New stage, the Moscow-2024

In 2022, the Russian capital ordered over 500 new cars with some improvements from TMH, mainly to renew the Line 2 fleet. By the end of 2023, the first train, named Moscow-2024, was assembled.

The revised version features a new front end of the head car and interior. The National Centre for Industrial Design and Innovation 2050.LAB, TMH’s partner, created three interior options. The colour scheme was ultimately chosen by city residents during the Manege Station exhibition, held as part of the Moscow Urban Forum.

The driver’s cab of the Moscow-2024 metro train The driver’s cab of the Moscow-2024 metro train. Source: Moscow Department of Transportation

The Moscow-2024 has a 10 cm wider aisle between the passenger seats and an increased width of the seats. This makes travelling more comfortable when sitting or walking on the train. Other technical innovations include the display of images from interior video cameras on console monitors. Fire detectors have been partially recessed and are now less visible, making the interior more attractive while providing the same functionality.

Inside the Moscow-2024 metro train Inside the Moscow-2024 metro train. Source: TMH

The new train’s seats have been upholstered in trend-setting eco-leather, which is both comfortable and hard-wearing. This is a crucial element of the interior, as the seats are one of the most frequently used features. The USB chargers have been relocated from the seats to the handrails, allowing both standing and seated passengers to charge their phones. A new ramp has been developed and a driver call button has been added to enhance convenience and safety for passengers with reduced mobility.

The Moscow-2024 train use the latest fourth-generation proprietary asynchronous traction drive. TMH continuously improves this technology, resulting in increased power and decreased weight with each generation, and remains committed to further enhancing it. The natural air-cooling system replaced the forced ventilation, and the component base has been updated. “In the further development of the TMH metro trains, improving energy efficiency is our top priority. We focus our research on maximising the efficiency of using the electricity recovered by the train”, TMH notes.

Seats and USB sockets in the Moscow-2024 Seats and USB sockets in the Moscow-2024. Source: Moscow Department of Transportation

The Moscow-2024 enhances the driver’s working experience with state-of-the-art air conditioning, an ergonomic control panel, and a comfortable, adjustable, and heated seat. In response to driver feedback, the cab now features a convenient timetable backlight and USB sockets for phone charging.

The basic activities aimed at ensuring technological independence were implemented when TMH included domestic components in the production of the Moscow-2020. For the manufacture of the Moscow-2024, TMH has moved on to the next while more important for the Russian rail industry stage, the replacement of subcomponents of the main units. Key Systems and Components Group, one of the suppliers of components for TMH rolling stock, is currently undertaking relevant activities.

Despite all the challenges, the growth in output at the Mytishchi factory is clear proof of the self-reliance of TMH metro trains. In 2023, the factory produced 520 cars, a 37% increase from the previous year. TMH is taking extensive measures to further enhance product quality and reliability by involving suppliers and service companies in its unified operation system, TOS.

The train control and diagnostics system in use in Moscow trains collects data on the condition of all train equipment. This data is then used for scheduled maintenance under 30-year life-cycle contracts and prompt response to emergencies. “Our current research is aimed at developing algorithms to process and analyse the collected data, which will enable predictive maintenance in the future”, TMH explained. The machine builder prioritises safety while also ensuring that the planning of service operations is not neglected.

Outlook: preparing to launch new models

The fulfilment of the large-scale first order for the Moscow trains in 2017 coincided with the start of a major modernisation of production at the TMH site in Mytishchi. With over 125 years of experience, the site is considered one of the global centres of metro train construction. Following the modernisation, it has doubled its production capacity and is now introducing modern equipment and implementing a production digitalisation strategy. The ongoing extensive reconstruction is progressing well and will significantly improve the use of space and ensure smooth production flow. Between 2017 and 2023, TMH invested in its site in Mytishchi RUB 9 bln ($129 mln).

Car assembly shop of the TMH site in Mytishchi Car assembly shop of the TMH site in Mytishchi. Source: TMH

As part of the life-cycle contracts with Moscow Metro, the TMH rolling stock maintenance company, MWM-Service, is expanding. According to its service unit, the company already operates 16 service centres across the capital’s metro network, maintaining 4,100 cars. Given the growth pace of the urban rail fleet, this year TMH has established a new company, TMH Urban Transport, to consolidate management decisions in this area.

According to TMH, Moscow Metro launches new metro car models every two years. “This is equivalent to the cycle of introducing new car models into production”, the company says. Today, TMH is developing the concept of new-generation metro train with a completely new design, increased capacity, and integrated unmanned operation elements.


TMH is the number one manufacturer of railway and light rail transport in Russia and the CIS, and the number five worldwide. It offers a wide range of products and services, from the design and development of rolling stock to modernisation, life-cycle maintenance, and digital traffic control systems. The holding embraces production and assembly sites in Russia and other countries and works in more than 30 countries. Website:

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